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Thread: Summer running - 2000 Ducati ST2

  1. #61
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    3rd February 2004 - 08:11
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    1982 Suzuki GS1100GK, 2008 KLR650
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    Wallaceville, Upper hutt
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    I believe that now the lead has been taken out of the "stuff sold as petrol" plugs will always look black-ish even when the mixture is lean.
    it's not a bad thing till you throw a KLR into the mix.
    those cheap ass bitches can do anything with ductape.
    (PostalDave on ADVrider)

  2. #62
    Join Date
    28th January 2015 - 16:17
    Bike
    2000 Ducati ST2
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    Lower Hutt
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    A bit more work changing the old chain and sprocket set out.

    I'd read, years ago, that chain and sprocket systems had to be changed whole sets at a time. No half measures: if one bit's worn, the whole lot's shot and there's no rescuing it by replacing one bit at a time. Any partial replacement will just get chewed out to the same wear level in about five minutes.

    The sprocket pictured has all of 2,500 km on it. It was swapped early, onto a worn chain, simply to keep the bike going over the East Cape trip. This was done because the old sprocket was wandering over the output shaft spline in neat little orbital circles and the spline was getting ground down in a hurry. Fresh sprocket fitted, fresh sprocket spline, problem reduced if not sorted.

    Unfortunately the nice new sprocket's chain teeth got sacrificed... the photo should hopefully show how the worn chain has forced the sprocket to match in relatively short order. It's one thing to read this stuff. It's another to see it with my own eyes. They really do wear as a set. There's absolutely no point changing out a worn chain / worn sprocket / whatever without changing the whole lot in one hit.

    The slightly used retaining washer I'd fitted has also been munched. In places the retaining teeth are almost gone. I'm in two minds about this: grind the output spline to restore the spline end flats around the groove (they've V'd with abuse), or simply treat the retainers as disposable and change them the moment I suspect an issue. I'm leaning more toward the latter. It's an easy job to get in and swap this part out, these things are worth around $10 each, and even in this state I'd say it'll go for 5,000 km's each time.

    I changed the sprocket carrier bearings, too. The outboard bearing was spinning in the housing - there was free play when installing the new bearings and in the end I had to use Loctite 222 around the bearing perimeter to make sure it stayed put. The bearing puller slide hammer set has more than justified its purchase, this little beauty has saved an incredible amount of hassle.

    The new chain riveted closed without any issues. Really nice to work out of a bench vise instead of off a swingarm... the Ducati swingarm design on the ST series, which allows an endless chain to get taken off completely, is very nice to work with.
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  3. #63
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    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    Quote Originally Posted by pete376403 View Post
    I believe that now the lead has been taken out of the "stuff sold as petrol" plugs will always look black-ish even when the mixture is lean.
    Yeah, I've heard that we've got sooty petrol. The bike still started and ran just fine, I'm changing the plugs on general principal more than anything else.

  4. #64
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    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    2000 Ducati ST2
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    New chain and sprocket set fitted. I've gone around the the swingarm, engine casing and wheel rim with water soluble degreaser while everything's apart.

    The damage done to the clutch slave from the front sprocket wandering outboard is clearly visible - there's not really any point in cleaning this carved-up lip of aluminium off. It might be useful in future if I let a retaining washer run for too long and get chewed out, this lip is about the only thing really preventing the front sprocket from walking right off the output shaft.

    There was a slight problem with the wheel alignment - the swingarm plates (under the axle nuts) exert very high pressure on the swingarm paint, and as such have started to carve their way into the paintwork. This means that they've cut places that they like to sit. That placement in turn means that once the chain's replaced, adjustment starts getting difficult, because the plates walk a bit while the axle nuts are being done up. I had to take a couple of goes at it before I was happy with alignment and chain tension.

    The tie-down strap turned out to be very helpful in refitting the rear wheel. The towel's there to protect the bodywork. The strap doesn't really lift the wheel, but it was very good at holding it nearly in position while the axle was fitted. Once the weight's taken up, it's easy to juggle the wheel with one hand and the axle with the other.
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  5. #65
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    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    2000 Ducati ST2
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    Lower Hutt
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    Changing the air filter.

    I've lifted the tank via the latch bar and an overhead strap rather than use the tank prop. Ducati really had a brain fart with this particular item, it's a steel rod hinged at the engine with a plain (stabby) end for the fuel tank and a rubber bulb to try to keep anything from getting dented, scored or outright punctured. There's no clearly defined place on the tank for the bulb, as far as I can tell. The picture in the owner's manual shows this being lodged into a corner somewhere in the filter / pump flange assembly underneath the fuel tank.

    Not Ducati's finest design. It's right next to stuff that really shouldn't get damaged, there's a lot of force on it, the rubber bulb is cracked and I don't trust the thing. Another to add to the list...

    Anyway, the old air filter quite clearly showed the dirt once the new one was next to it. This is a good thing, it means that the filter has been doing its job. It also means that it's (by eye anyway) well due for changing. If it's loaded up enough then the engine won't breathe through it properly, there's also the risk that some of the particulates will make their way through the filter matrix and get into the motor.

    One thing that was a surprise was noticing the main design feature of the airbox: it's split in two. There's a divider running vertically, neatly separating the box into two side-by-side halves. The halves share the same air filter but end up being isolated from each other's pulses. Otherwise they're classic Helmholz resonators: a closed volume with an inlet pipe of known diameter and length (the snorkel) feeding the butterfly valve of the intake manifold. The idea is to use the induction pulses to get a bouncing effect going on the incoming air, tuning this so that the intake has positive pressure just at the time that it's needed. The airbox's non-spherical internal shape would lend itself to relatively mild resonance over a fairly broad range, helping the engine breathe over the most useful RPM without any sudden peaks or surges in power.

    I think this split was done to get around the L-twin engine's non symmetric intake timings, an intake pulse from one cylinder won't upset the resonance being used to help the next cylinder breathe. It's a very simple feature and (I think, anyway) a very clever idea.
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  6. #66
    Join Date
    3rd February 2004 - 08:11
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    1982 Suzuki GS1100GK, 2008 KLR650
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    Quote Originally Posted by OddDuck View Post
    One thing that was a surprise was noticing the main design feature of the airbox: it's split in two. There's a divider running vertically, neatly separating the box into two side-by-side halves. The halves share the same air filter but end up being isolated from each other's pulses. Otherwise they're classic Helmholz resonators: a closed volume with an inlet pipe of known diameter and length (the snorkel) feeding the butterfly valve of the intake manifold. The idea is to use the induction pulses to get a bouncing effect going on the incoming air, tuning this so that the intake has positive pressure just at the time that it's needed. The airbox's non-spherical internal shape would lend itself to relatively mild resonance over a fairly broad range, helping the engine breathe over the most useful RPM without any sudden peaks or surges in power.

    I think this split was done to get around the L-twin engine's non symmetric intake timings, an intake pulse from one cylinder won't upset the resonance being used to help the next cylinder breathe. It's a very simple feature and (I think, anyway) a very clever idea.
    Good explanation of air box design and purpose and why putting individual pod filters on will probably screw up an otherwise ok engine, requiring much investment of time in jetting and a richer fuel mix to get the engine running something close to what it was like was before the airbox was swapped out for pods.
    it's not a bad thing till you throw a KLR into the mix.
    those cheap ass bitches can do anything with ductape.
    (PostalDave on ADVrider)

  7. #67
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    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    2000 Ducati ST2
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    Quote Originally Posted by pete376403 View Post
    Good explanation of air box design and purpose and why putting individual pod filters on will probably screw up an otherwise ok engine, requiring much investment of time in jetting and a richer fuel mix to get the engine running something close to what it was like was before the airbox was swapped out for pods.
    Thankyou. I went through just that on the 900SS after going from airbox to pods. The pods were done so that I could properly triangulate the frame (repeated problems with cracking), once this was done the airbox couldn't be used.

    My experience, for anyone out there thinking of going to pods on a carburetted bike, was that you need:

    - Jet kits for mains, pilot, slow air, basically every variation on every jet used
    - Needle kits with different tapers, main diameters, etc
    - Dyno runs on one of the rigs that have exhaust gas monitoring
    - A systematic, planned approach to the whole endeavor. Experience counts.

    I'd put the budget for doing the tuning properly at well over $2K. So far I've been skimping on the dyno runs and going cheap with an AFR gauge. That's limited by the fact that full throttle isn't really possible except on a closed, long and straight road, I can tune up to about half throttle with publicly available riding but after that things get risky.

    The ST2 is injected, so any changes (K&N air filter and aftermarket pipes, say) will need ECU reprogramming - not exactly easy to do at home. The plan with this bike is to keep it as close to stock as possible, at least for now. I'd like to start stuff like opening the mufflers up (I want that bass sound) but until I have the 900SS sorted out properly, it's smart to keep this one reliable.

  8. #68
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    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    2000 Ducati ST2
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    Lower Hutt
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    Timing belts and shims, finally. This is one of the critical jobs on a non-bevel Ducati, the engine can sustain major damage in very short order if a belt snaps.

    Major damage: piston meets mis-timed valve, destroying both and probably taking out the cylinder head as well. I imagine there'd be further damage through the engine due to the shock loading. There's a chance that this could lock the engine up totally, probably while riding, possibly while banked over in a corner. Maybe at speed.

    Ducati take a very conservative approach to their belts because of this sort of consequence. The rule is 20,000 kms / 2 years. Get to either of those and that's it, change belts time. In a world of automotive timing belts and cam chains which are rated to 100,000 km's or further, this sort of high maintenance change frequency sounds pretty paranoid, but they're trying to run the belts right on the left of the reliability bell curve. Zero failures, in short.

    There weren't any maintenance records with the bike when I purchased, with 26K on the clock. I've taken the risk-taking view that I'd inspect and make a decision at the 30K service interval, since checking would be due at that mileage anyway. I had no idea whether the belts would have been changed at all.

    It turns out that they have, probably at the scheduled 20K interval. From the Carweb sheet I was given, the bike was imported ex-Japan on 12th May 2016, with 18K already on the clock. I've taken the guess that the belts were changed on import and therefore were coming up to the 2 year interval. That's a best case. There's a chance that the belts had been changed in Japan, the bike was inspected on arrival and passed, and so the belts could very well be from a two-year interval (whenever that happened) and could be now be several years old.

    The belts that came off were CA Cycleworks Exactfit belts. I've had these before and had no issues with them. These ones are unusual though, I've never seen rubber so shiny before. The teeth almost look polished. I compared these against an old set (same brand) off the 900SS and the rubber is definitely more worn. I couldn't say anything about the cords inside though. There's a lot of rubber dust inside the covers, too.

    Practicalities: the timing cases are tucked behind various bits of frame, wiring, and the battery box. The tank has to be lifted to access the top part of the vertical cylinder's cover and the fairing has to come off completely. An extended length 5mm socket driver, instead of the usual Allen key, was a great help given the difficulty of getting at a few of the cap screw heads.

    The position Ducati use to set belt timing, as shown by white dots on crankcase, cylinder head rubber shields, and timing pulleys, leaves the vertical cylinder wanting to rotate away while the belt is being fitted. It was very helpful to have the timing pulley fastener tool handy, I used this to position the pulley against the valve closer springs while fitting the new belt.

    Belt tension was set by using a 5mm Allen key as a feeler gauge, with the belts in a neutral position, on both cylinders. By neutral position I mean not under tension, which will happen when the closer springs on the relevant camshaft are engaged. I had to rotate the engine to a couple of different positions to do this, then rotate the engine through a full cycle or two (with spark plugs removed) to check for any mistimings and mechanical collisions. Then I checked belt tension again at multiple different engine positions, it was easy enough to do.

    There's a lot of angst about correct timing belt tension on Ducatis. People out there use quite a few methods:

    Resonance, pluck the belt like a guitar string and listen (with laptop, software and microphone) to the ringing frequency
    Twist - set tension so the belt can be twisted to X degrees but not further (I am not a fan of this method)
    Force tension - use a 10 N push / pull tool

    There are the factory methods, starting with the 10 N tool above and since following a path of increasingly specialised, expensive tools and procedures. As someone on another forum said, it's a timing belt, it will work over a range of tensions, what kills them is gross over or under tension, oil, and leaving them too long.

    I've used an Allen key feeler gauge method successfully through full timing belt lives on the air-cooled 900SS (5mm horizontal, 6mm vertical). I used 5mm on both cylinders on the ST2, since it's a liquid-cooled engine and likely to be running at a uniform temperature. The trick is to get the feel right and err on the side of the belt being slightly too loose.
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  9. #69
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    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    2000 Ducati ST2
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    Brake hose replacement - rear.

    The Frentubo brake hoses I'd ordered from Stein Dinse have arrived. Preventative maintenance time, after the experience with the clutch line I'd prefer to avoid having another hose failure.

    The hoses arrive as a bolt-on kit complete with banjos and washers, there's no hose assembly needed. Installation was simply noting the arrangement of the old hose (I took photos to show banjo angles on the original), wrapping everything in rags, taking the old hose off and then placing the new hose. Hose clamps and guides were refitted and then I tightened the banjos once I was happy with the routing.

    I placed hose screening against vibration and chafing in the wire clamp, this piece of the hose has to be free to move with swingarm motion. The U-clamp used to secure the hose to the swingarm was sized for the standard rubber hose, so it was too large in diameter. A piece of 12.5mm OD, 6.5 (ish) mm ID fuel hose turned out to make a perfect hose bushing.

    Refilling / bleeding turned out to be simple, I'd had visions of air locks etc but all it took was the standard bleeding procedure:

    Pressurise brake lever
    Release bleed nipple
    Watch fluid and / or air flow into bleed bottle
    Tighten bleed nipple with brake lever still in
    Release brake lever
    Repeat as needed.

    It took a while to get the master cylinder to draw fluid from the little reservoir jar properly but after that there were no issues, the system came up to pressure very quickly.
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  10. #70
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    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    Brake hose replacement - front.

    Fitting was very similar to the rear line. Bleeding got a bit more involved and I ended up using a gravity bubble clearing method: air will move upwards through the system. Eventually it gets to the reservoir and is cleared via the ejection port on the master cylinder's piston.

    One of the photographs shows the reservoir, with the two feeder holes for the master cylinder visible on the bottom. The disturbances on the fluid surface are air bubbles being ejected and bursting. This turned out to be difficult to photograph cleanly due to low light and high speed, the bubbles move very quickly.

    The key things about the gravity method is that it takes time, it depends on everything being angled upwards, and air traps have to be manually angled so that air can escape upwards into hose lines. The photo of the front caliper is there to show the angle of one of the banjos: this is unlikely to clear the last air bubbles by bleeding, if they're above the fluid flow then they're not likely to be snatched by fluid turbulence and drawn out during bleeding.

    At the reservoir itself, the final banjo and its attachment to the reservoir can form an air trap, so the reservoir itself has to be taken off the bar and tilted vertical with the reservoir filled and capped while the lever is worked over the first part of its motion.

    I tried this sort of thing with the calipers but suspect it'd work better if I worked the lever and pushed pots back in, as well as simply tilting the unit. Fluid movement, even tiny amounts back and forth, seems to help the air bubbles to clear upwards.

    It did work. It isn't quite 100%. The lever's still a little spongy, either there's air trapped in the calipers following hose swap or old, squashy fluid is behind the pots, but it's ridable.
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  11. #71
    Join Date
    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    2000 Ducati ST2
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    Sorting the clutch - detailed description of clutch basics

    Repairing a broken fairing screw mounting post.

    This is one of those short towers of plastic that stick out, carrying a moulded-in brass nut. It's been broken somehow and needed repair. I'd thought an end-to-end glue fix wouldn't be strong enough so found an old bushing off the car that was the right ID to go over the post, then hacksawed and filed the end of this to match the inner curve of the panel. After that it was simple matter of mixing up some Araldite, assembling the plastic components, and pushing the bushing over the lot. The bushing sits high but it's a clearance fit over the metal mounting post between the fairing panel and the bike's frame, there were no issues re-mounting the panel.

    This fix has worked but I had issues with the Araldite proving remarkably slow to set. Does anyone know if this stuff has a shelf life?

    That done, I finally got onto the clutch plate set. It's been wanting doing ever since purchasing the bike: the clutch juddered and squealed on release while starting off, also gear changes have always been a bit clunky. Lately gear changes have been getting worse, particularly getting into first gear from neutral with the bike stopped. It's changing with a noticeable clunk.

    Clutches have to engage fully, or deliver a controllable amount of torque to the rear wheel if some slip is needed. They also have to mostly disengage for gear changes. Not completely. Some small amount of torque is still needed to turn the input shaft against the output shaft, making sure that the gearbox dogs are spun through a chance to engage. Otherwise (zero torque case) if those dogs aren't in the right place, shifting won't be possible. This can be seen with a bike up on the stands, with a stopped engine - if changing through the gears, the rear wheel will have to be rotated. There will be positions where gear changes aren't possible without turning the rear wheel. One gear shaft has to be rotated relative to the other.

    So, some torque needed, not too much though. If the clutch isn't disengaging enough then it'll be transmitting more torque than is needed to guarantee a clean gearchange, and that means the gearbox dogs, gear teeth, various bearings through the drivetrain, chain and sprockets, etc etc, are all getting shock loads applied. I'll be hammering the drivetrain every time I change gears. It won't kill things immediately but it will affect component lifetimes.

    So, the famous Ducati tambourine, the dry clutch. There's a basket, carrying friction plates. This basket is driven by the engine's primary output gear and rotates full time with the engine running. Inside this is a splined hub which is mounted on the gearbox input shaft. The hub carries plain steel plates which are alternated with friction plates in the overall assembly. At the end of the stack is a pushrod-operated pressure plate. This pressure plate squeezes the plate stack shut via six springs which are attached to the hub, or releases pressure (and therefore friction) if it's pushed away from the stack via the pushrod.

    That's the theory, anyway. The clutch depends on things being straight and square in order to work properly, and that's where the trouble starts...

    What happens with old Ducati clutches is that the friction disc tangs get hammered by the basket, due to being endlessly tumbled in the basket's cage while the engine runs. The disc edges mushroom out, like the end of an old chisel. If this is allowed to go on for long enough, the mushrooming ends up contacting the steels, lifting them off the friction surface. The mushrooming can also mean that the friction discs start contacting each other instead of being loaded through the steels.
    The other major effect is the steels cutting their way into the splines of the clutch hub. Once notched in, they can jam axially or skew, then there are problems.

    It's easy enough to get into the clutch basket assembly. Once the outer cover is removed, it's just a question of undoing the six spring bolts and pulling the pressure plate. A couple of mechanic's magnetic retrieval tools help greatly with pulling the discs out of the clutch.
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  12. #72
    Join Date
    28th January 2015 - 16:17
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    2000 Ducati ST2
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    And the fix... lots of filing. I was there for three hours.

    The frictions were filed while held flat on the edge of the bench, taking the mushrooming off. The steels were carefully chamfered over every face of their splines while held in the bench vise, roughly 30 degrees, 0.25-ish mm chamfer depth from the original edge. Ducati used some kind of vibratory finishing process to break the steel's spline edges during original manufacture but it really hasn't been enough, there has to be enough of a chamfer for the disc to climb and slide over any notching in the clutch hub's splines.

    During this I had to be careful to keep file pressure light and not work too far outboard from either bench or vise. Too much force and it'd be easy to bend a disc. Once bent they'll be all but impossible to straighten out again, and that'll be it for pretty well the entire disc stack if there aren't spares.

    I left the two innermost steels as they'd been supplied, the original edges can be seen in the photo of the stacked discs. These ones don't move and won't have issues with notching into the relatively soft clutch hub. At least that's my excuse, I'd had enough by the time I got to them and decided to just leave them.

    The clutch pressure plate had a couple of issues, too. It was tri-lobed after manufacture - I presume it's lathed flat after casting and is held in something with three jaws during machining, resulting in a not perfectly flat surface. This probably isn't all that big a problem but I don't like it. About twenty minutes with some 120-grit wet-n-dry and a flat-ish underplate worked. I used an orbital motion while sanding and rotated the pressure plate every few orbits in order to randomise any non-uniformities from the plate under the paper. The pushrod end cup had gone rusty, jamming the pushrod in - hence the punch out with a jeweller's screwdriver (I didn't have a pin punch small enough) and a mechanic's socket to support the other side of the pushrod cup - and lots of wiping rust out with CRC and cotton buds. It's not really possible to get in there with sandpaper unless the O-ring is to be sacrificed.

    Riding today showed that all this work was worth it. The clutch is working well. Nice smooth gear changes, no problems with full engagement (although I'd have to hill climb somewhere to really test the engine at full torque). The friction tangs are stuffed, there's no getting around the need to replace the disc set at some point, but this'll keep it going for a bit longer.
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  13. #73
    Join Date
    28th January 2015 - 16:17
    Bike
    2000 Ducati ST2
    Location
    Lower Hutt
    Posts
    1,183
    The clutch still isn't releasing properly. This time I've tried pulling the clutch hub out, finding that it's the OEM aluminium-over-steel assembly, with integral rubber shock absorbing cush dampers. This is good news, I'd wanted to be sure that shock loads were being minimised through the gearbox.

    What isn't good news is how heavily notched the hub has become. The cuts and grooves are clearly visible on the splines, even after an attempt to clean up with sandpaper (I did this instead of file because I'd wanted to take the edges off via flex in the paper, while leaving as much metal in place as possible). This will be binding the steels up, if there's any engagement whatever in these grooves (and this is a given after the clutch has transmitted some torque). The steels won't be free to slide axially, which is needed if the clutch is to release properly.

    Le sigh. I've ordered a replacement hub, at some point old components are simply stuffed and it's replacement time. While doing this work I finally noticed something disturbing... the basket can be moved radially by hand, it's flexing on its bearings.

    The system that Ducati use is that the crankshaft outputs shaft power via a gear. This connects to a larger gear, which has the clutch basket mounted on it. This floats on a pair of bearings on the gearbox input shaft, so that it's concentric with this shaft but not linked to it unless the clutch is engaged. It should rotate cleanly but that's all, it shouldn't flex in any way. Bearings and pump cover gasket are on order too.
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  14. #74
    Join Date
    28th January 2015 - 16:17
    Bike
    2000 Ducati ST2
    Location
    Lower Hutt
    Posts
    1,183
    Another wee spot of work, this time something reasonably simple - replacing the Bowden cable used for the speedo. The original snapped via rust and neglect. Motion Pro do a generic replacement kit for this exact purpose.

    Not much to it really, cut to length, use the included tool and crimp the right end tongue onto the cable via block and hammer. I matched lengths using the original broken cable and cut the new one as gently as possible with a Dremel and cut-off wheel. About the only gotcha is that the correct length isn't end to end, it's end to flange on the speedo drive fitting.

    A surprising amount of C-shaped cable fragments came out of the cable housing - it's well worth while running a couple of welding rods or similar wire through this before fitting the new inner cable.
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  15. #75
    Join Date
    28th January 2015 - 16:17
    Bike
    2000 Ducati ST2
    Location
    Lower Hutt
    Posts
    1,183
    Riding, probably the last ride of the summer, notchy clutch and all.

    A quick three-dayer around the northern part of the South Island. The useful info I can remember:

    The Interislander is starting to provide half-OK tie downs for bikers, at least on the ferry over. Lots of riders don't seem to know how to use them though... expect odd knots where someone gave up trying to work them out and just used them as a hook and a rope. I had to help a couple of bikers with how to set them up and then how to release them again on the other side. Also don't expect enough of them per sailing, free tie downs for your bike not guaranteed.

    Lots of USB charging ports provided too. Good to see that they've never stopped improving.

    The Kaikoura coast road: what the road crews have managed to do would be seriously interesting to a civil engineer. As it is, it's pretty interesting to see, but not particularly good riding. There's 30 k zones everywhere, single lane stop and waits, broken tarmac and gravel etc etc. It was a bit like this on the inland route too, there were plenty of patches on the road where loose gravel had been left as ball bearing traps for incautious bikers. It was good from Picton right through to Kekorangu though.

    Hanmer Springs: the famous pools open 10 am to 9 pm. This can a bit disappointing if you're arriving late and leaving early...

    Arthur's Pass: mindblowing on a good day. We got lucky, we had a good day. It was awesome. I wouldn't want to be anywhere near it in the current weather though, and heaven help a biker caught in icy conditions on the steep bits.

    Buller Gorge, Punakaiki Rocks coast area: lots of tourists and campervans but no issues with driver behaviour or road clogging / nana drivers etc.

    Tophouse Road: one of the sweetest bits of tarmac I've done in NZ, well worth it as a fun way north to Nelson from St Arnaud. None of the road damage seen further east. Look out for something called 88 Mile Road or similar, it narrows down a bit but keeps the fun going a bit longer.

    St Arnaud: the Clinker cafe is fantastic, slightly pricey perhaps but so worth it. Go to the service station side of the road, take the first left after the servo and it's up at the end. Traffic through St Arnaud has eased greatly now that Kaikoura's open again. It's possible that the unbroken double yellows and 80 zones seen between St Arnaud and Murchison have been opened up again to the usual 100 km normal open road etc a bit but I could be mistaken.

    A great trip and a good way to end the summer.
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